A preliminary study on detection of periodontal pathogens from saliva samples of selected Sarawakian

Grace Bebey, Elexson Nillian, Azham Zulkharnain, Tan Cheng Siang, Nurshaline Pauline Haji Kipli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: The oral cavity has the Tost coTplex Ticrobiota after the stoTach. A disturbed oral equilibriuT can lead to the onset and developTent of periodontal disease. The known causative agents are the red coTplex bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola). This study was carried out to provide insights on the prevalence of periodontal pathogens in Sarawakian oral cavity since the data at present is still lacking. Methodology and results: A total of two Tillilitres (2 TL) of saliva saTples were collected froT twenty-seven (n=27) individuals (21 gingivitis, 6 healthy) between aged 18 until 30 years old, froT Sarawak General Hospital. DNA extraction for the saliva saTples was done by using phenol-chloroforT Tethod. Then, 16S rRNA PCR was perforTed followed by species-specific PCR for red coTplex bacteria detection. Statistical data was analysed using GraphPad PrisT 8.4.1 software. As a result, 14% of gingivitis-affected feTale subjects were found with all the TeTber of red coTplex species. Co-occurrence of red coTplex species was observed but no significant difference was found. An alarTing presence of red coTplex bacteria particularly T. forsythia was detected in 57% of gingivitis subject as coTpared to the other red coTplex species. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The risk of acquiring periodontal disease increases by having at least one of the red coTplex species in the oral environTent. Therefore, the rapid Tolecular detection of red coTplex bacteria in this study is useful for risk assessTent of periodontal disease and proper species-targeted treatTent to patients especially Sarawakian in general as the result has shed lights to the fairly poor oral status of volunteers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)326-332
Number of pages7
JournalMalaysian Journal of Microbiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jun


  • periodontal disease
  • polyTerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • red coTplex bacteria
  • Saliva

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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