A short review on electrochemical exfoliation of graphene and graphene quantum dots

Wan Hazman Danial, Noriliya Aina Norhisham, Ahmad Fakhrurrazi Ahmad Noorden, Zaiton Abdul Majid, Kazunari Matsumura, Anwar Iqbal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


The synthesis of graphene and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) employing various approaches with a range of precursors, chemicals, and parameters has been reported. Most of the top-down and bottom-up techniques employ strong and hazardous chemical environments, complicated and tedious procedures, are time-consuming, and often require special equipment. Another drawback of the techniques reported is the production of agglomerated, inhomogeneous, and non-dispersible graphene in aqueous solvents or organic solvents, thus limiting its application. This work specifically and comprehensively describes the electrochemical exfoliation of graphene and GQDs, which is often considered as a simple one-step, facile, non-hazardous, and highly efficient technique yet favourable for mass production. A brief discussion on the advantageous and challenges of the electrochemical technique and applications of the electrochemically exfoliated graphene and GQDs is also presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)371-388
Number of pages18
JournalCarbon Letters
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jun


  • Electrochemical
  • Exfoliation
  • Graphene
  • Graphene quantum dots

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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