Anatomical study of cutaneous venous flow of the sole

Nobuaki Imanishi, Kazuo Kish, Hak Chang, Hideo Nakajima, Sadakazu Aiso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: It is well known that venous drainage of the medial plantar flap is performed by two venous systems: cutaneous veins visible through the skin that drain into the great saphenous vein; and deep veins, namely, accompanying veins of the medial plantar artery. However, there are only a few illustrations of the cutaneous veins of the sole in anatomical textbooks. Further clarification of the cutaneous veins of the sole was considered to be useful information in elevating the medial plantar flap. METHODS: Whole-body or local injection with contrast medium was performed in 10 fresh cadavers. The skin and subcutaneous tissue were elevated and radiographed with a soft x-ray system. In an embalmed cadaver, macroscopic observation was performed. RESULTS: In the sole, an intimate venous network was formed by branches of the great saphenous vein, small saphenous vein, and dorsal venous arch. Vascular arrangement of the venous network was not random but characteristic in each region of the sole. In the medial planta, vessels were arranged toward the anterior margin of the medial malleolus. CONCLUSION: In planning the medial plantar flap, taking the vascular arrangement into consideration is considered to help the flap to avoid venous congestion and to extend the skin portion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1906-1910
Number of pages5
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Dec
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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