Development of a remote-control system for catheterization capable of high-speed force feedback

Rei Takagi, Keita Osada, Akihiko Hanafusa, Motoki Takagi, Shahrol Bin Mohamaddan, Kazuyuki Mitsui, Hidenobu Anzai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: There is a growing interest in minimally invasive surgery as interventional radiology (IVR), which decreases the burden on a patient. However, occupational exposure is a problem because the treatment is performed using X-ray fluoroscopic images. This problem can be solved by the development of a teleoperation system, but rapid force presentation is important to perform safe surgery. The purpose of this study is to develop a new teleoperation system that can be controlled at a high speed and can provide feedback force sensation within 20 ms delay. Methods: A master–slave-type remote-control system for catheterization was developed. A compact and high-speed force feedback system is realized using a novel electro-attractive material (EAM) device by which the resistance force is generated by the magnitude of the voltage applied. The linear and rotational movement of master is transferred to the slave device by UDP communication with the LAN cable, and the same movement is performed by two motors. The collision force of catheter or guidewire, detected by the sensor inside the slave device, is also transmitted to the master device. Two voltage-based methods for EAM: the ON/OFF and linear control methods, were implemented. Results: After the collision force is detected by the slave sensor, the voltage is applied to the EAM in the master device for an average of 10.33 ms and 15.64 ms by the ON/OFF and linear control methods, respectively. These delays are less than required 20 ms. The movement of the master was stopped by the resistance force of EAM, and that of the slave was also stopped accordingly. Conclusion: A master–slave-type remote-control system for catheterization that is capable of high-speed force feedback was developed. With a low delay, the developed system achieved the requirements of 20 ms that was aimed for this study. Therefore, this system may facilitate the realization of IVR surgery that is safe for both doctors and patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)763-773
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Apr


  • Electro-attractive material (EAM)
  • Force feedback
  • Interventional radiology (IVR)
  • Master–slave system
  • Teleoperation system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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