Effect of early reflections from upside on auditory envelopment

Hiroshi Furuya, Kazutoshi Fujimoto, Yoshito Takeshima, Hiroshi Nakamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Auditory spaciousness is primarily dependent on the strength of early lateral energy. The difference between the degree of spaciousness caused by only lateral reflections and that caused by lateral and ceiling reflections, however, has not been definitively clarified yet. In this paper, a series of psycho-acoustical experiments is performed to examine the effect of early reflections from upside on spaciousness with lateral reflections. The results show that a single reflection from upside causes a vertical spread of sound image and auditory envelopment becomes stronger as vertical component of reflected energy increases when lateral energy fraction and listening level are constant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-104
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of Japan (E) (English translation of Nippon Onkyo Gakkaishi)
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1995


  • Auditory impression of sound image
  • Early reflections from upside
  • Psycho-acoustical experiment
  • Room acoustics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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