Evolution of water-in-oil droplets in t-junction microchannel by micro-piv

Hawa Ringkai, Khairul Fikri Tamrin, Nadeem Ahmed Sheikh, Shahrol Mohamaddan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Water-in-oil droplets have huge importance in chemical and biotechnology applications, despite their difficulty being produced in microfluidics. Moreover, existing studies focus more on the different shape of microchannels instead of their size, which is one of the critical factors that can influence flow characteristics of the droplets. Therefore, the present work aims to study the behaviours of water-in-oil droplets at the interfacial surface in an offset T-junction microchannel, having different radiuses, using micro-PIV software. Food-grade palm olein and distilled water seeded with polystyrene microspheres particles were used as working fluids, and their captured images showing their generated droplets’ behaviours focused on the junction of the respective microfluidic channel, i.e., radiuses of 400 µm, 500 µm, 750 µm and 1000 µm, were analysed via PIVlab. The increasing in the radius of the offset T-junction microchannel leads to the increase in the cross-sectional area and the decrease in the distilled water phase’s velocity. The experimental velocity of the water droplet is in agreement with theoretical values, having a minimal difference as low as 0.004 mm/s for the case of the microchannel with a radius of 750 µm. In summary, a small increase in the channel’s size yields a significant increase in the overall flow of a liquid.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5289
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jun 1


  • Droplets
  • Flow characteristics
  • Micro-PIV
  • Microchannel
  • Microfluidics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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