Femtosecond two-photon stereo-lithography

M. Miwa, S. Juodkazis, T. Kawakami, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

128 Citations (Scopus)


We report herein a method for the three-dimensional (3D) fabrication of microstructures by means of direct fs-beam writing (scanning) inside a polymerizable resin. Photopolymerization takes place via two-photon absorption (TPA), as indicated by measurements of transmission power dependence. This concept of fabrication is based on two principles: the use of short, sub-picosecond pulses and simultaneous tight focusing (numerical aperture, NA > 1). This approach creates a unique opportunity for avoiding self-focusing even at very high intensities, as the power is lower than the self-focusing threshold. Under such conditions, no filament formation takes place and no thermal convection disturbance occurs in the focal vicinity during photo-polymerization. This technique requires no sacrificial layers or structures in real 3D micro-stereo-lithography.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)561-566
Number of pages6
JournalApplied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Nov
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science


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