Graded TiN coating by supersonic free-jet PVD combined with reactive plasma

Atsushi Yumoto, Takahisa Yamamoto, Fujio Hiroki, Ichiro Shiota, Naotake Niwa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Ceramic coating is a very popular technology for improving the properties of structural materials. A titanium nitride (TIN) coating is a typical example and has been widely applied to cutting tools, electronic devices and many other fields utilizing its superior physical properties. This paper sought to produce a graded TiN coating on a Ti substrate by combining Supersonic Free-Jet PVD (SFJ-PVD) with a reactive plasma-metal reaction technique. The authors have developed SFJ-PVD as a new coating method in which a coating film is formed by depositing nanoparticles with very high velocity onto a substrate. SFJ-PVD can provide a high deposition rate and thick film coating. Gradually changing the nitrogen flow rate during deposition produces a graded TiN coating, in which composition changes gradually from pure Ti to TiN. A monolithic TiN coating is also produced with SFJ-PVD. XRD analysis of the graded TiN detected peaks for Ti, Ti2N and TiN, while only a TiN peak is observed in the monolithic TiN coating. EPMA analysis of a graded coating reveals a gradual compositional change from pure Ti to TiN. Few pores or cracks are observed in a graded TiN or in a monolithic TiN formed under the optimized conditions of SFJ-PVD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2932-2994
Number of pages63
JournalMaterials Transactions
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Nov
Externally publishedYes


  • Functionally graded material
  • Nanoparticle
  • Physical vapor deposition
  • Supersonic gas flow
  • Titanium nitride

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Graded TiN coating by supersonic free-jet PVD combined with reactive plasma'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this