Limited effectiveness of household sand filters for removal of arsenic from well water in North Vietnam

Cimi Ilmiawati, Nguyen Dinh Thang, Machiko Iida, Masao Maeda, Shoko Ohnuma, Ichiro Yajima, Nobutaka Ohgami, Reina Oshino, M. M.Aeorangajeb Al Hossain, Hiromasa Ninomiya, Masashi Kato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Since well water utilized for domestic purposes in the Red River Delta of North Vietnam has been reported to be polluted by arsenic, barium, iron, and manganese, household sand filters consisting of various components are used. Information regarding the effectiveness of various sand filters for removal of the four toxic elements in well water is limited. In this study, arsenic levels in 13/20 of well water samples and 1/7 of tap water samples exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) healthbased guideline value for drinking water. Moreover, 2/20, 6/20, and 4/20 of well water samples had levels exceeding the present and previous guideline levels for barium, iron, and manganese, respectively. Levels of iron and manganese, but not arsenic, in well water treated by sand filters were lower than those in untreated water, although previous studies showed that sand filters removed all of those elements from water. A low ratio of iron/arsenic in well water may not be sufficient for efficient removal of arsenic from household sand filters. The levels of barium in well water treated by sand filters, especially a filter composed of sand and charcoal, were significantly lower than those in untreated water. Thus, we demonstrated characteristics of sand filters in North Vietnam.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1032-1040
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Water and Health
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Dec
Externally publishedYes


  • Arsenic
  • Barium
  • Iron
  • Manganese
  • Sand filter
  • Well water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


Dive into the research topics of 'Limited effectiveness of household sand filters for removal of arsenic from well water in North Vietnam'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this