Low-Computational-Cost Algorithm for Inclination Correction of Independent Handwritten Digits on Microcontrollers

H. Waruna H. Premachandra, Maika Yamada, Chinthaka Premachandra, Hiroharu Kawanaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In recent years, the digitization of documents has progressed, and opportunities for handwritten document creation have decreased. However, handwritten notes are still taken for memorizing data, and automated digitalization is needed in some cases, such as making Excel sheets. When digitizing handwritten notes, manual input is required. Therefore, the automatic recognition and input of characters using a character recognition system is useful. However, if the characters are inclined, the recognition rate will be low. Therefore, we focus on the inclination correction problem of characters. The conventional method corrects the inclination and estimates the character line inclination. However, these methods do not work when characters exist in independent positions. Therefore, in this study, we propose a new method for estimating and correcting the tilt of independent handwritten digits by analyzing a circumscribed rectangle and other digital features. The proposed method is not based on an AI-based learning model or a complicated mathematical model. It is developed following a comparatively simple mathematical calculation that can be implemented on a microcontroller. Based on the results of the experiments using digits written in independent positions, the proposed method can correct the inclination with high accuracy. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is low-computational cost and can be implemented in real-time on a microcontroller.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1073
JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Apr 1


  • character inclination estimation
  • circumscribed rectangle
  • digit feature analysis
  • document image processing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Signal Processing
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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