Musculoskeletal model of awkward carrying postures

N. A. Abdul Majid, S. Mohamaddan, T. Omiya, M. Notomi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Improper posture of carrying loads can cause low back disorders. This study investigates the impact of using a footstool in spinal force and muscle activity when: (1) pushing/pulling load farther/nearer from the body and (2) twisting the trunk while carrying load. A whole body musculoskeletal model carrying a light load of 5, 7.5 and 10 kg is developed and inverse dynamics analyzes are conducted. Electromyography activities are also recorded to compare to the results from analyzes. Analyzes demonstrated that using a footstool when carrying a light load can reduce the intradiscal compression force. The results from the analysis are found to be consistent with the electromyogram measurement. This study suggests that load should be positioned closer to the body and footstool of 5 cm height should be used to reduce spinal forces and muscle activity on the lumbar region.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1256073
JournalCogent Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • back pain
  • carrying load
  • muscle activity
  • musculoskeletal model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Engineering(all)


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