Glutathione S-transferase (GST) (EC 220.127.116.11) catalyzes conjugation of reduced glutathione with hydrophobic substrates, such as S-epoxide active molecules. It participates in glutathione metabolism and the γ-glutamyl cycle, playing an important role in detoxification and biosynthesis of many compounds. It is also known as a marker of pre-neoplasia in chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. Isoelectric focusing studies have revealed that this enzyme is composed of several isozymes, one of which, an acidic form of GST called GST-π, has been extracted from human placenta. In this study, we prepared monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against human GST-π from placenta. Specificity was confirmed by immunoblots of GST-π after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and inhibition testing of enzyme activity by the antibody. The subclass of the antibody was IgG1 and the light chain was κ. In light microscopic immunohistochemical studies of human placenta using the MAb, GST-π was localized diffusely in the cytoplasm and along the apical cell membranes of syncytial cells in villi and in the cytoplasm of cytotrophoblastic cells in the basal plate. The MAb we prepared may also be useful for analyzing the enzyme's function in detoxification and biosynthesis of many compounds, as well as for oncological studies, such as diagnosis of malignant disease and localization of oncofetal proteins in malignant tissues.
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