Procedural texturing of solid wood with knots

Maria Larsson, Takashi Ijiri, Hironori Yoshida, Johannes A.J. Huber, Magnus Fredriksson, Olof Broman, Takeo Igarashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


We present a procedural framework for modeling the annual ring pattern of solid wood with knots. Although wood texturing is a well-studied topic, there have been few previous attempts at modeling knots inside the wood texture. Our method takes the skeletal structure of a tree log as input and produces a three-dimensional scalar field representing the time of added growth, which defines the volumetric annual ring pattern. First, separate fields are computed around each strand of the skeleton, i.e., the stem and each knot. The strands are then merged into a single field using smooth minimums. We further suggest techniques for controlling the smooth minimum to adjust the balance of smoothness and reproduce the distortion effects observed around dead knots. Our method is implemented as a shader program running on a GPU with computation times of approximately 0.5 s per image and an input data size of 600 KB. We present rendered images of solid wood from pine and spruce as well as plywood and cross-laminated timber (CLT). Our results were evaluated by wood experts, who confirmed the plausibility of the rendered annual ring patterns.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3530081
JournalACM Transactions on Graphics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jul 22


  • Distance field
  • Natural phenomena
  • Procedural texturing
  • Smooth minimum
  • Volumetric texturing
  • Wood

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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