1 Citation (Scopus)


We here introduce three types of self-actuating and nonelectronic machines using chemical reactions and physicochemical transformations. Our strategy is to develop completely artificial and autonomous machines that do not rely on electronic components. We herein demonstrate Belousov-Zhabotinsky gel machines, active droplet machines, and paper machines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)249-252
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Robotics and Mechatronics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Apr


  • Active droplet
  • BZ gels
  • Paper mechatronics
  • Self-folding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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