SMA micro-hand implemented in small robot for generating gestures

Ishikawa Takumi, Nagasawa Sumito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Research on robots that can be used for communication with humans has become popular in recent years. Communication robots should ideally be as small as an infant in order to reduce the user’s feeling of threat. In addition, non-verbal communication (such as gestures) is also important in facilitating smooth interactions between humans and robots. There are currently a few communication robots that are small sized and can generate hand gestures. In this paper, we propose a small robot hand, which is optimized for gesture communication by using a shape memory alloy (SMA). The SMA employed is a Ti–Ni alloy, which is used as an actuator. The SMA shrinks when it transforms into the austenite phase at temperatures higher than the transformation temperature. When it is in the martensitic phase at a lower temperature, it is expanded by an external force. Each finger of the robot hand is driven by an individual SMA wire. The specifications of the small robot including the hand size, operation angles in each finger joint, response times and power consumption were determined according to the human finger and existing small communication robots. These required specifications have been fulfilled by carefully designing the geometry and heating/cooling power control. A questionnaire-based survey was also conducted with a robot hand. The five-finger hand was successfully shown to generate recognizable symbolic gestures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)399-408
Number of pages10
JournalIntelligent Service Robotics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jul


  • Gesture
  • Micro-robot
  • Robot hand
  • Shape memory alloy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Artificial Intelligence


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