Synthesis of arylidene propanedioic acids by Knoevenagel condensation for use in ceramic sols

Syed Salman Shafqat, Misbahul Ain Khan, Azham Zulkharnain, Sinin Hamdan, Andrew Ragai Henry Rigit, Amir Azam Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This paper is primarily concerned with the synthesis of arylidene propanedioic acids by Knoevenagel condensation. Generally organic bases pyridine and piperidine are used as catalyst in Knoevenagel condensation which are costly and health hazard. In this research work, Knoevenagel condensation of various aromatic aldehydes (benzaldehyde, salicylaldehyde and p-chlorobenzaldehyde) and active methylenes (malonic acid and ethyl acetoacetate) was carried out in the presence of amino acids (glycine, lysine, hippuric acid, methionine and leucine) as catalyst. Using salicylaldehyde gave coumarin-3-carboxylic acid, a solvent free synthesis. These products were isolated and purified and were characterized through melting points, TLC, IR, mass and 1H NMR. These acids are synthesized for eventual development of organically modified ceramic nano powders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8463-8466
Number of pages4
JournalAsian Journal of Chemistry
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Dec 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Amino acid catalysis
  • Ceramic sols
  • Knoevenagel condensation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry


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