Three-dimensional innate mobility of the human foot bones under axial loading using biplane X-ray fluoroscopy

Kohta Ito, Koh Hosoda, Masahiro Shimizu, Shuhei Ikemoto, Takeo Nagura, Hiroyuki Seki, Masateru Kitashiro, Nobuaki Imanishi, Sadakazu Aiso, Masahiro Jinzaki, Naomichi Ogihara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


The anatomical design of the human foot is considered to facilitate generation of bipedal walking. However, how the morphology and structure of the human foot actually contribute to generation of bipedal walking remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the three-dimensional kinematics of the foot bones under a weight-bearing condition using cadaver specimens, to characterize the innate mobility of the human foot inherently prescribed in its morphology and structure. Five cadaver feet were axially loaded up to 588N (60 kgf), and radiographic images were captured using a biplane X-ray fluoroscopy system. The present study demonstrated that the talus is medioinferiorly translated and internally rotated as the calcaneus is everted owing to axial loading, causing internal rotation of the tibia and flattening of the medial longitudinal arch in the foot. Furthermore, as the talus is internally rotated, the talar head moves medially with respect to the navicular, inducing external rotation of the navicular and metatarsals. Under axial loading, the cuboid is everted simultaneously with the calcaneus owing to the osseous locking mechanism in the calcaneocuboid joint. Such detailed descriptions about the innate mobility of the human foot will contribute to clarifying functional adaptation and pathogenic mechanisms of the human foot.

Original languageEnglish
Article number171086
JournalRoyal Society Open Science
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Oct 18
Externally publishedYes


  • 2D-3D registration
  • Bipedal locomotion
  • Foot kinematics
  • Midtarsal joint
  • Subtalar joint
  • Tibio-calcaneal coupling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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