Three-dimensional venous anatomy of the dermis observed using stereography

Nobuaki Imanishi, Kazuo Kishi, Hak Chang, Hideo Nakajima, Sadakazu Aiso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Veins of the dermis have been investigated mainly by histological methods in the fields of anatomy and histology, and a large number of schemata of the veins have been depicted in a variety of textbooks. However, the schemata are usually two-dimensional and it is therefore difficult to envisage the actual vasculature of the dermal veins. In this study, we performed a stereographic study of the skin of three fresh cadavers that had been injected with radio-opaque dye, which was dispersed throughout the entire body. A venous network consisting of venous polygons of various sizes existed just under the dermis or in the deep zone of the dermis, which is generally called the subdermal venous plexus. There were many small vessels towards the inside of each venous polygon, and most of them ascended, branching off stereoscopically. Those branches anastomosed with each other, and they formed the dermal and subpapillary venous plexuses. However, there was little vascular connection between dermal venous plexuses of different venous polygons. The characteristic structure of the dermal venous plexus has been considered to bring about venous congestion of the skin in various clinical situations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)669-673
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Anatomy
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2008 May
Externally publishedYes


  • Dermal plexus
  • Dermis
  • Three-dimensional structure
  • Venous anatomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Histology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology


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