Transformation of waste marigold flowers into porous carbons via hydrothermal carbonization

Nattapat Chaiammart, Sittan Wongcharoen, Apiluck Eiad-Ua, Takahiro Ishizaki, Gasidit Panomsuwan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)


Vast quantities of marigold flowers are often discarded as waste at sacred places and temples after religious ceremonies in Thailand. This has motivated us to examine the utilization of waste marigold flowers as a precursor for the synthesis of porous carbons by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and pyrolysis. Waste marigold flowers were hydrothermally treated at 180 °C for 2, 12, and 24 h. The resultant hydrochars were subsequently pyrolyzed at 800 °C under argon (Ar) atmosphere. Based on X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy analyses, the samples exhibited an amorphous phase regardless of HTC time. With increasing HTC time, the marigold surface became rougher and more ruptured. This resulted in the development of a porous structure, thereby increasing surface area. The specific surface area of carbon samples increased from 118 to 281 m2 /g with HTC increasing from 2 to 24 h, respectively. Increase of specific surface area mainly resulted from the development of a microporous structure at longer HTC times. Our results offer guidelines to control surface area and porosity through the adjustment of HTC conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGreen Convergence on Materials Frontiers II
EditorsTaweechai Amornsakchai
PublisherTrans Tech Publications Ltd
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)9783035715521
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes
Event13th Pure and Applied Chemistry International Conference, PACCON 2019 - Bangkok, Thailand
Duration: 2019 Feb 72019 Feb 8

Publication series

NameKey Engineering Materials
Volume824 KEM
ISSN (Print)1013-9826
ISSN (Electronic)1662-9795


Conference13th Pure and Applied Chemistry International Conference, PACCON 2019


  • Biomass
  • Hydrothermal carbonization
  • Marigold flowers
  • Porous carbon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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