Two-Level Reinforcement Learning Framework for Self-sustained Personal Robots

Koyo Fujii, Patrick Holthaus, Hooman Samani, Chinthaka Premachandra, Farshid Amirabdollahian

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


As social robots become integral to daily life, effective battery management and personalized user interactions are crucial. We employed Q-learning with the Miro-E robot for balancing self-sustained energy management and personalized user engagement. Based on our approach, we anticipate that the robot will learn when to approach the charging dock and adapt interactions according to individual user preferences. For energy management, the robot underwent iterative training in a simulated environment, where it could opt to either “play” or “go to the charging dock”. The robot also adapts its interaction style to a specific individual, learning which of three actions would be preferred based on feedback it would receive during real-world human-robot interactions. From an initial analysis, we identified a specific point at which the Q values are inverted, indicating the robot’s potential establishment of a battery threshold that triggers its decision to head to the charging dock in the energy management scenario. Moreover, by monitoring the probability of the robot selecting specific behaviours during human-robot interactions over time, we expect to gather evidence that the robot can successfully tailor its interactions to individual users in the realm of personalized engagement.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSocial Robotics - 15th International Conference, ICSR 2023, Proceedings
EditorsAbdulaziz Al Ali, John-John Cabibihan, Nader Meskin, Silvia Rossi, Wanyue Jiang, Hongsheng He, Shuzhi Sam Ge
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9789819987146
Publication statusPublished - 2024
Event15th International Conference on Social Robotics, ICSR 2023 - Doha, Qatar
Duration: 2023 Dec 32023 Dec 7

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume14453 LNAI
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference15th International Conference on Social Robotics, ICSR 2023


  • Battery Management
  • Companion robots
  • Personalized interaction
  • Reinforcement learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • General Computer Science


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