Variational secure cloud quantum computing

Yuta Shingu, Yuki Takeuchi, Suguru Endo, Shiro Kawabata, Shohei Watabe, Tetsuro Nikuni, Hideaki Hakoshima, Yuichiro Matsuzaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Variational quantum algorithms (VQAs) have been considered to be useful applications of noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices. Typically, in VQAs, a parametrized ansatz circuit is used to generate a trial wave function, and the parameters are optimized to minimize a cost function. On the other hand, blind quantum computing (BQC) has been studied in order to provide a quantum algorithm with security by using cloud networks. A client with a limited ability to perform quantum operations hopes to have access to a quantum computer of a server, and BQC allows the client to use the server's computer without leakage of the client's information (such as input, running quantum algorithms, and output) to the server. However, BQC is designed for fault-tolerant quantum computing, and this requires many ancillary qubits, which may not be suitable for NISQ devices. Here, we propose an efficient way to implement the NISQ computing with guaranteed security for the client. In our architecture, only N+1 qubits are required, under an assumption that the form of ansätze is known to the server, where N denotes the necessary number of the qubits in the original NISQ algorithms. The client only performs single-qubit measurements on an ancillary qubit sent from the server, and the measurement angles can specify the parameters for the ansätze of the NISQ algorithms. The no-signaling principle guarantees that neither parameters chosen by the client nor the outputs of the algorithm are leaked to the server. This work paves the way for new applications of NISQ devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number022603
JournalPhysical Review A
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Feb
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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