Disposable Sensor Chips with Molecularly Imprinted Carbon Paste Electrodes for Monitoring Anti-Epileptic Drugs

Aaryashree, Ashish Kumar Choudhary, Yasuo Yoshimi

研究成果: Article査読

1 被引用数 (Scopus)


Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are critical for their management. However, the therapeutic window is narrow, and traditional laboratory-based therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) methods can be time consuming and unsuitable for point-of-care testing. To address this issue, we developed a disposable sensor chip based on molecularly imprinted polymer-modified carbon paste electrodes (MIP-CPs) for the TDM of AEDs such as phenobarbital (PB), carbamazepine (CBZ), and levetiracetam (LEV). In this work, functional monomers (methacrylic acid) and crosslinking monomers (methylene bisacrylamide and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) were copolymerized in the presence of the AED template and grafted on the graphite particles by simple radical photopolymerization. The grafted particles were mixed with silicon oil, dissolving ferrocene as a redox marker to make the MIP-carbon paste (CP). Disposable sensor chips were fabricated by packing the MIP-CP into the base made of poly (ethylene glycol terephthalate) (PET) film. The sensor’s sensitivity was determined using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), carried out on a single sensor chip for each operation. Linearity was obtained from 0–60 μg/mL in PB and LEV and 0–12 μg/mL in CBZ, covering their respective therapeutic range. The time taken for each measurement was around 2 min. The experiment using whole bovine blood and bovine plasma indicated that the existence of species that interfered had a negligible effect on the test’s sensitivity. This disposable MIP sensor provides a promising approach for point-of-care testing and facilitating the management of epilepsy. Compared with existing tests, this sensor offers a faster and more accurate way to monitor AEDs, which is crucial for optimizing therapy and improving patient outcomes. Overall, the proposed disposable sensor chip based on MIP-CPs represents a significant advancement in AED monitoring, with the potential for rapid, accurate, and convenient point-of-care testing.

出版ステータスPublished - 2023 3月

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 分析化学
  • 情報システム
  • 生化学
  • 原子分子物理学および光学
  • 器械工学
  • 電子工学および電気工学


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