In the present study, multiscale microstructure evolutions of nickel and gadolinium doped ceria (Ni-GDC) composite anode operated under humidified condition (800 °C, 40%H2O:20%H2:40%N2) are investigated. Focused ion beam - scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) with spatial resolutions of 2 nm and 25 nm are used to observe the changes in both local and whole microstructures. Significant multiscale reorganization of the microstructure is observed in both Ni and GDC phases. Migration of GDC nano-particles in the range of several micrometers is confirmed. In addition, thin GDC layer with nanometer thickness is formed on the Ni surface, similar to the strong metal support interaction (SMSI). Heterogeneous microstructural evolutions of the GDC phase are seen at the electrode-electrolyte interface and at the vicinity of the current collector. The GDC microstructural evolution is considered as a key factor of anode degradation.
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