The relation between listener envelopment (LEV) and directional characteristics of late-arriving sound through a series of psycho-acoustical experiments was investigated. Four directional late energy ratio (DLR) were calculated from the overall impulse responses obtained with omni-directional and figure-of-eight microphones in oder to determine the directional property of late sound. The effect of DLR on LEV was also investigated using sound fields with late sounds arriving from oblique directions. The results show that the total late energy affects LEV most strongly when both DLR and TLL are varied in the sound fields.
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